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2 edition of Epidemiology and evolution of pneumococcal neuraminidases found in the catalog.

Epidemiology and evolution of pneumococcal neuraminidases

Samantha Jane King

Epidemiology and evolution of pneumococcal neuraminidases

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Published by typescript in [s.l.] .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Warwick, 1999.

StatementSamantha Jane King.
The Physical Object
Paginationxx, 202p. [72]p.
Number of Pages202
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20136713M


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Epidemiology and evolution of pneumococcal neuraminidases by Samantha Jane King Download PDF EPUB FB2

BACKGROUND. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide and a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia Epidemiology and evolution of pneumococcal neuraminidases book meningitis.(1, 2)Widespread use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Wyeth Lederle Vaccine) in the U.S.

since has significantly changed the epidemiology of IPD.() The Centers for Cited by: EPIDEMIOLOGY. Pneumococcal infections are thought to spread from person to person via droplets/aerosols and nasopharyngeal colonization is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease.

The carriage rate peaks around 2–3 years of age and diminishes thereafter to. J.P. Lynch, G.G. ZhanelStreptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology and risk factors, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and impact of vaccines Curr Opin Pulm Med, 16 (3) (), pp.

View Record in Scopus Google ScholarCited by: 1. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the explosive pulmonary and systemic inflammatory consequence of a disrupted host-pathogen relationship normally.

Changes in the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae were reported worldwide after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine, particularly an increase in multi-drug resistant (MDR) 19A strains.

Subsequently, a valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) has been introduced. This study assessed the incidence of S. pneumoniae Epidemiology and evolution of pneumococcal neuraminidases book in all age groups prior to the introduction of.

Serotyping and Molecular Typing of S. pneumoniae Serotyping. Distinction among pneumococcal strains based on serotype emerged early in the study of S. pneumoniae because of its importance for the therapy of these infections, and later because of the development of vaccines targeting the CPS (see Chapter 3).The total number of pneumococcal serotypes recognized has.

Between andthe frequency of penicillin resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease gradually decreased from % to % in children and from % to % in adults.

This decrease coincided with the introduction of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into immunization programs and with a general reduction in levels of.

The characteristics, diagnosis, management, surveillance and epidemiology of pneumococcal disease. Published 31 July Pneumococcal: the green book, chapter 13 January Techasaensiri C, Messina AF, Katz K, Ahmad N, Huang R, McCracken GH., Jr Epidemiology and evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by multidrug resistant serotypes of 19A in the 8 years after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization in Dallas, Texas.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. ; – Pneumonia, at first called “the special enemy of old age” [] by Osler and later, by a more mature Osler, “the friend of the aged” [], has long been with humankind and shows little likelihood of going the preantibiotic era, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the overwhelmingly predominant cause of pneumonia, but this is clearly no longer the case.

Pneumococcal valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F, was introduced for use among children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It causes a variety of diseases, ranging from mild otitis media to invasive disease, including sepsis and meningitis.

Colonization of the nasopharynx is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease and also an important step in the development of antimicrobial resistance. World Health Organization. Changing epidemiology of pneumococcal serotypes after introduction of conjugate vaccine: July report.

Weekly Epidemiological Record. Introduction. Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and elderly people.1, 2, 3 In Taiwan, invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection has been a national notifiable disease since October The incidence.

Specifically these neuraminidases cleave sialic acid-containing substrates with α-2,6 and α-2,3 linkages of N-acetylneuraminic acid to galactose, and α-2,6 linkage to Coomb’s test is usually positive in pneumococcal HUS patients, and T-antigen exposure on RBC and other cells can be detected in human and mouse.

Epidemiology is the study of health at a human population scale, including transmissible and nontransmissible diseases. It also considers diseases that affect animals. It analyses factors depending on the agent, host, and environment that come into play in the population’s health.

Abstract. Background: Although the majority of pneumococcal infections occur in the developing world, pneumococcal epidemiology is poorly understood in these settings.

The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage among children younger than 5 years at a paediatric healthcare centre in Ghana. The major clinical syndromes of pneumococcal disease are pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis.

Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common clinical presentation of pneumococcal disease among adults. The incubation period of pneumococcal pneumonia is short, about 1 to 3 days. Symptoms generally include an abrupt onset of fever and chills or rigors. Phylogenetic trees (minimum-evolution, neighbor-joining phylograms) of pneumococcal capsular genes and red and blue serotype characteristics.

A, Four core capsular genes (wzg, wzh, wzd, and wze), including 2 examples of serotype-specific glycosyltransferase genes (wchA and wchF) and 2 other type-specific genes (mnaA and rmlACBD) (this analysis includes 4 concatenated rml genes).

Burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and serotype distribution among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in young children in Europe: impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and considerations for future conjugate vaccines.

International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; e –. Sialic acid was able to support significant pneumococcal growth (OD = ), although this growth was delayed and to a lower final optical density than growth in glucose at the same molar concentration (Fig.

(Fig.1). Conditioning bacteria in sialic acid medium resulted in a reduction, but not elimination, of the time taken to achieve the. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Scotland, use of record linkage to explore associations between patients and disease in relation to future vaccination policy.

Clin Infect Dis, 37(10) [2] Lynch JP, Zhanel GG (). Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology, risk. Although the polysaccharide capsule has been recognized as a sine qua non of virulence, recent attention has focused on the role of pneumococcal proteins in pathogenesis, particularly in view of their potential as vaccine antigens.

The contribution of pneumolysin, two distinct neuraminidases, autolysin, hyaluronidase, and the 37 kDa pneumococcal surface adhesin A has been examined by. Age and gender distribution.

Ininvasive pneumococcal disease was predominantly found in infants and the elderly, with confirmed cases per population in adults aged 65 years or older and confirmed cases per population in children under one year of age (Figure 3).

Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media, as well as an important cause of sinusitis, septic arthritis, osteomy.

Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology and risk factors, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and impact of vaccines. Curr Opin Pulm Med. May. 16(3) [Medline]. Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is an important human pathogen causing high levels of mortality es caused include meningitis, pneumonia, and otitis media.

pneumoniae is a member of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis, sharing >99% homology by 16S rRNA gene analysis (13, 23).

Whitney C. et al. Effectiveness of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease: a matched case-control study. Lancet– (). Ghaffar F. et al. Effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the first 2 years of life.

Clin. Enhanced surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults was conducted during April –March in 10 of 47 prefectures in Japan, and a total of IPD patients were enrolled. An emergence of IPD caused by serotype 12F was identified during May –March through this surveillance.

12F isolates were composed of four related sequence types. Streptococcus Pneumoniae: Molecular Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Interactions provides a comprehensive overview of our existing knowledge on Streptococcus pneumoniae antibiotic resistance, dissemination, and pathogenesis, including immunology.

It presents a state-of-the-art overview of the implications of existing data, along with the areas of research that are important for future insights.

Review of pertussis epidemiology. Domenech de Celles et al. () The Pertussis Enigma: Reconciling Epidemiology, Immunology, and Evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B.

Routine use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to major decreases in overall rates of invasive pneumococcal disease among children; disease due to the 7 vaccine serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) has been nearly eliminated in the United States [].There have been reported increases in rates of invasive disease due to nonvaccine serotypes (ie.

Access Invasive pneumococcal disease national notifiable time periods and case definitions. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content.

The aim. of the work was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with the vaIent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and its combination with the valent pneumococcal. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is of concern in Japan, where the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is unavailable.

We determined serotypes, genotypes indicating β-lactam resistance, and antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates from normally sterile sites in patients ( children, adults) from institutions between August and July   Streptococcus pneumoniae is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks.

The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and comment on transmission. We conducted a review of published S. pneumoniae outbreaks, defined as at least two linked cases of S. pneumoniae. Pneumococcal serotype 1, accounting for % of the cases, however, is not covered by the 7-valent conjugate vaccine.

An even higher prevalence of type 1 infections (20% of cases) was observed in a 2-year (October through September ) prospective, nationwide surveillance of all invasive pediatric pneumococcal infections in Israel. Pneumococcal infections cause a high death toll in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) but the recently rolled out pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) will reduce the disease burden.

To better understand the population impact of these vaccines, comprehensive analysis of large collections of pneumococcal isolates sampled prior to vaccination is required.

To the Editor —Occasionally, scientific discoveries sink into oblivion, and later investigators find difficulties in explaining forgotten connections.

McCullers and Rehg [] discuss the role that platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr) plays in the lethal synergism between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae PAFr is an important factor in the attachment and invasion of cells by.

The first capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine was licensed in the USA in for individuals older than 2 years of age at high risk for pneumococcal disease. Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right.

Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.Before routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, the burden of pneumococcal disease among children younger than 5 years of age was significant.

An estima cases of invasive disease occurred each year, of wh were bacteremia without. S. pneumoniae is an endemic pathogen worldwide and causes serious disease in children living within developing es caused by S. pneumoniae include: acute otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, and bacterial developing countries, it is estimated that pneumococcal pneumonia kills more than one million children under the age of five per year.